
Review of Short Phrases and Links 
This Review contains major "Circular Orbits" related terms, short phrases and links grouped together in the form of Encyclopedia article.
Definitions
 Circular orbits are a special case of elliptical orbits but with a zero eccentricity.
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 Circular orbits are unstable; any outside influence (i.e.
 Circular orbits are assumed (i.e., precession is ignored).
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 Circular orbits are usually the most desirable but are the hardest to achieve.
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 Circular orbits are difficult to obtain, but not impossible.
 Over the course of the 17th century, the German astronomer Johannes Kepler realized that the planets do not describe circular orbits around the earth.
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 When there are only two satellites in the cluster, it is preferable to keep the satellites in circular orbits, and simply separate them in longitude.
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 The former are generally assumed to be in circular orbits initially, and in the latter case the satellites are on nearly radial orbits.
 He preserved the circular orbits of the planets and introduced equants and small epicycles to explain minor variations from circular orbits.
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 B) the planets move at constant speeds in circular orbits around the Earth.
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 Copernicus still tried to maintain the circular orbits and constant speeds.
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 Plato first proposed that the planets followed perfect circular orbits around the Earth.
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 It made use of perfect circular orbits and encouraged the belief that the sun, moon, and stars were perfect unchanging bodies.
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 Calculate a Hohmann transfer orbit between Earth and Mars (assume both planets are on circular orbits).
 Therefore, it is usually concluded that objects in circular orbits represent the greatest hazard to other spacecraft.
 Circular orbits for giant planets are important because they open the door to the existence of terrestrial planets like Earth.
 Over millions of years, planets can easily wander from circular orbits into eccentric, oval ones.
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 Johannes Kepler proposed eccentric rather than circular orbits in order to explain how planets moved about the sky.
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 The tricky bit is realizing that circular orbits occur when the effective potential V(r) is at a minimum or maximum, i.e.
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 Mildly unstable: circular orbits spiral out to some finite value of r, then spiral back in to some minimum r, when given an "infinitesimal" extra velocity.
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 Circular orbits smaller than r s are not possible.
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 The n=14 orbit, however, would be so slightly elliptic that it would not offer much advantage over the circular orbits.
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 Circular orbits have the advantage that the orbit does not evolve appreciably with time, which simplifies the constellation design.
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 Unlike circular orbits, whose two focus points reside in the same location — the center of the circle — elliptical orbits have two focus.
 Absolutely perfectly circular orbits do not occur in nature.
 Parabolic orbits, like circular orbits, are rare (or non existent) in nature.
 Planet orbits have small eccentricities (nearly circular orbits) which is why astronomers before Kepler thought the orbits were exactly circular.
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 On 29 September 2010, astronomers at Keck Observatory announced the discovery of Gliese 581 f and Gliese 581 g, both in nearly circular orbits.
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 Intermediate Circular Orbits (ICO), or Medium Earth Orbits (MEO): ICOs are circular orbits at an altitude of around 10,000 km.
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 This new planet dismantles the longheld theory that other planets in the universe would all have nearly circular orbits.
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 Copernicus did still assume (like his predecessors) that all motions in the Universe were along circular orbits.
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 This requires explanation, since planets that form from a disk are expected to have nearly circular orbits.
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 Such highly eccentric orbits are just as possible as circular orbits, as far as the laws of motion are concerned.
 In particular, some of the newly discovered planets, known as hot Jupiters, orbit extremely close to their parent stars, in nearly circular orbits.
 It exists for all except circular orbits, and it acts in the direction that opposes acceleration in the r direction.
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 It's unstable, in that photons in other than perfectly circular orbits will end up either falling into the event horizon or escaping.
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 In the case of circular orbits, this rate is one half of the gravity at the orbit.
 Subtracted orbits are generated by subtracting the virtual circular orbits of each surface from the average orbit.
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 Inside 1.5 Schwarzschild radii, no circular orbits exist, stable or unstable: all free fall orbits fall into the black hole.
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 For the case of stable nearly circular orbits, we have seen that oscillates sinusoidally about its mean value,.
 The Hilda family orbit between 3.5 and 4.2 AU, and have relatively circular orbits and a stable 3:2 orbital resonance with Jupiter.
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 Most of its stars have a scale height of 1000 lightyears and orbit the Galaxy on fairly circular orbits.
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 In spiral galaxies, the stars move in circular orbits, with velocities that increase with increasing distances from the center.
 Kinematically, the stars revolve around the Galaxy fast, having fairly circular orbits and small U, V, W velocities.
 Geosynchronous satellites that are in circular orbits over the equator are called geostationary satellites.
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 The equations for elliptical orbits are discussed and compared with the equations for circular orbits.
 In this paper we compute the precession frequencies of circular orbits around rapidly rotating neutron stars for a variety of masses and equations of state.
 Bohr's model of the atom was essentially twodimensional because it depicts electrons as particles in circular orbits.
 The electrons travel in circular orbits that have discrete (quantized) angular momenta, and therefore quantized energies.
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 In addition to the circular orbits already described, elliptical ones are also consistent with the requirement that the angular momentum be quantized.
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 Parabolic trajectories (like perfectly circular orbits) are rare since they form the transition between the ellipse and the hyperbola.
 This is Kepler's 3rd law, for the special case of circular orbits around Earth.
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 Bohr considered circular orbits.
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 Bohr was very familiar with the dynamics of simple circular orbits in an inverse square field as described in classical mechanics.
 In the Bohr model, this restriction imposed on circular orbits was enough to determine the energy levels.
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 For circular orbits with zero inclination the argument of latitude is also undefined, because there is no uniquely determined line of nodes.
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 Both have circular orbits, very near the equator, which is very unusual in itself for captured objects.
 In fact the objects in these spiral arms are in almost circular orbits about the centre of the Galaxy.
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 The passing star could have pulled objects like Sedna out of their circular orbits and also spun away millions of KBOs.
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 The planets in our Solar System have very low eccentricities, and thus nearly circular orbits.
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 Like our solar system, the planets around Gliese 581 have nearly circular orbits.
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 But this definition assumes that most planets have roughly circular orbits, like the Earth and most other planets in the solar system.
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 A geosynchronous orbit is a circular orbit and some elements are common for all circular orbits.
 SPECIAL TYPES OF CIRCULAR ORBITS.  We stated previously that a circular orbit is a special type of elliptical orbit.
 Planets with low eccentricities have more circular orbits, while planets with high eccentricities have more elliptical orbits.
 Circular orbits have e=0, elliptical orbits have 0<e<1, radial and parabolic orbits have e=1, and hyperbolic orbits have e 1.
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 From a practical point of view, elliptical orbits are a lot more important than circular orbits.
 From the time of the ancient Greeks until Kepler's time, scientific dogma insisted that planets move in circular orbits at a constant speed.
 Model had circular orbits and uniform circular motion, added small epicycles to account for variability.
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Categories
 Elliptical Orbits
 Science > Astronomy > Universe > Planets
 Universe > Planets > Orbits > Circular Orbit
 Information > Science > Astronomy > Copernicus
 Universe > Space > Spacecraft > Satellites
Related Keywords
* Bodies
* Circular
* Copernicus
* Earth
* Eccentricity
* Electrons Moving
* Elliptical
* Epicycles
* Nucleus
* Orbit
* Orbital Elements
* Orbital Plane
* Orbiting
* Orbits
* Periapsis
* Plane
* Planet
* Planetary Motion
* Planets
* Satellite
* Satellites
* Slight Difference
* Sun

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